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Usild Center for Diplomatic & Strategic Studies

Essence & Evolution of Diplomatic Negotiations

Essence of Diplomatic Negotiation


Architecture of International Negotiation

  • Academic & Practitioners

  • Parties and interests

  • Process & Powers

  • Bashing & Bergainings

Approach to International Negotiation

  • Approach from International Negotiation

  • Approach from other sources

Process and Context of Diplomatic Negotiation



Boundaries in Bargaining

  • Geographical: Border Bargaining

  • System as Boundaries in Bargaining Process

  • Needs: The Role of Interests and Positions

  • Resources: Human, Imaterial, and Materials

  • Regulators: Law, Procedures, and Diplomatic Norms

Order through Organization

  • Regimes & Negotiations

  • Shifts in Multilateral

  • Coping with Challenges

  • Possible futer Development

Aspects of Diplomatic Negotiation


The Development of Diplomatic Negotiation

  • The Problem of Establishing Outcomes

  • Changes Over the Centuries

 Characteristic of Diplomatic Negotiation

  • Conflict of Interest and Power Relationships

  • Inter-State Negotiations

  • Diplomats & Negotiation Behaviors


  • The Utility of Wars and Words

  • Historical Background

  • Commonality

  • Divergences

  • Synergies

  • Mediation

Entrapment in Negotiation



  • Choice

  • Uncertainty

  • Repetition


  • Intrapersonality

  • Interpersonality

  • National,

  • International


  • Planning

  • Information

  • Communication

  • Control

Case Study

  • 4 Lessons

  • States

  • International Organizations

  • Non-governmental Organizations

  • Multinational Enterprises

Behavioral Patterns in the Conduct of  Diplomatic Negotiation from 17th Century to 21st Century

Diplomatic Negotiation Behaviors in the 17th Century (Forward, Backward, Outcomes)


  • Parties and Positions

  • Procedures and Process

  • People and Posture

  • Prevention and Perspective

20th Century: Diplomatic Negotiation focused on Reputation and Egotiation


Closure of the World War I

  • The Outsider Ring

  • The Insider Ring (or Inner Ring)

Opening of the World War II

  • Munich, 1938

  • Yalta, 1945

During the Cold War

  • Vienna, 1961

  • Beijin & Moscow

  • Geneva, 1985

Diplomatic Negotiation Behavior in the 18th Century


  • What was it about?

  • The political context

  • Pre-negotiation

  • Negotiators

  • Negotiations

  • The Congress on Dutch Soil

  • The Peace of Utrecht in a Boorben perspectives

  • Past and Present: Effective Negotiators

21th Century: Struture and Negotiation


  • Uniqueness and Strength of the Organization

  • The Role of Negotiation Process

  • Characteristics of the EU as a Negotiation Area

  • Member States in the EU Negotiation Process

  • Procedures of the EU Negotiation Process

  • Institutions in EU Negotiation Process:   

           The Presidency in the EU Negotiation Process

             The EU Council in the EU Negotiation Process

             The Council of Ministers in the EU Negotiation Process

             The Parliament in the EU Process

             The Commission as the Initiator, Implementer, and Broker


  • EU Enlargement and External Negotiations Process

  • Strategies and Tactics in EU Negotiations Process

  • The Future of EU Negotiation Process

19th Century: Diplomacy of Inclusion and Exclusion


  • Choice

  • Context

  • Counterparts

  • Structure

  • Conversations

  • Convergence

  • Conclusion

Similating Diplomatic Negotiation Process


Unilateral Lessons for Chairing

  • Chairing in the EU

  • Effective Chairing

Bilateral Lessons for Practice

  • The Nature of Negotiation in a OSI Context

  • Training for On-site Inspection Negotiation

  • CTBTO Table-Top Exercise: what are they about

  • CTBTO Table-TOP Exercise: What happening and why?

Multilateral Lessons

  • Substance

  • Rule of the Games

  • Processes and Outcomes

  • Comparable Games

Negotiation and Warfare


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